A sixty three 12 months aged thriving entrepreneur/mountaineer suffered disabling chronic LBP and still left buttock pain just after an 8 feet (2.4 metres) drop in 2011 with soreness aggravation five months later from a physically-demanding expedition. He had laminotomy with lumbar disc elimination when contrast MRI in 2013 showed L4-L5 broad-based mostly left paracentral disc extrusion with central canal narrowing and mass effect on bilateral L5 roots. Other MRI results incorporated L4-L5 retrolisthesis, C5-C7 degenerative disc adjustments, lower thoracic Schmorl’s nodes, L1-S1 smaller wide-dependent disc bulges, reasonable sacro-iliac joint arthritis bilaterally, left hip labral tear and old ideal complete hip arthroplasty. Spine X-Rays confirmed 24° lumbar levoscoliosis.
Publish-spinal surgical treatment, ache worsened, not alleviated with Bodily therapy, manual stretching, inversion spinal traction, epidural injectionsx3, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulations, anti-inflammatory prescription drugs, shorter and very long-acting opioides, acupuncture and alternative https://reviewsarena.net/ techniques. Ache seriously compromised going up inclines/steps and ambulation to 500-1000 ft (150-300 metres) necessitating again and hip muscle stretches each individual five-ten minutes. Agony-scale was six/10 on presentation on August seven, 2014. Examination showed average array of motion limitation of neck, again, shoulders and hips with core muscle weak spot, In particular around the left. There have been no sensory deficits or upper motor neuron signals.
Ache-scale decreased from 6/ten to 2/ten with very first DTPS session stimulating the MTrPs confirming predominant myofascial involvement. He continued with DTPS. 9 months into therapy, he efficiently accomplished travelling in an expedition, his very first since 2011 all through which he walked 4-6 miles (six.4-nine.six km) on most days. Over the sixty working day holiday hiatus starting June 1, 2015 to July 30, 2015, he performed self DTPS but due to Recurrent, demanding activities, soreness-scale increased to six/10. From the 45 working day period prior to and once the expedition his treatment method classes lasted a hundred and fifteen+12.9 minutes and one hundred twenty+6.6 minutes respectively indicating additional issue in eliciting massive force twitches due to tightness of muscles. Electrical supersensitivity linked twitching at remote websites slowly returned but he lost capability to mechanically provoke autonomous twitch-trains.
For even more enhancement and/or routine maintenance of QOL, he needs and nevertheless gets ongoing, self-utilized and skillfully-used DTPS.
World wide Well being Difficulty Examination
Scope of Persistent suffering
Continual suffering (CP) is a world-broad general public wellbeing difficulty influencing physiological, psychological and social perfectly-getting. You can find 1.five billion CP sufferers globally (American Academy of Suffering Drugs World wide web-site), including a hundred million American Grownups. In The usa, once-a-year CP treatment is approximated at $635 billion, which happens to be a lot more than Price tag/12 months for most cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, costing $243, $309 and $188 billion respectively. Total incremental cost of pain wellbeing-treatment is $261-$three hundred billion, non-public insurers compensated the largest share ($112-$129 billion), authorities programs (Medicare and Medicaid) bore twenty five% ($sixty six-$seventy six billion) and eight% ($twenty-$23 billion) respectively with individuals paying yet another $44-$51 billion in out-of-pocket well being-care expense. CP negatively impacts once-a-year range of work-times, perform-hrs and wages resulting in dropped productiveness of $299-$334 billion.
With world-wide child survival improvement and rising growing older populations, the volume of men and women suffering from LBP and NP will escalate considering the fact that CP increases with age. CP dominate sufferers’ lives, causing disabilities in relatives/house duties, occupational, social, leisure, snooze and sexual actions. Discomfort-connected investigations and solutions normally make CP worse influencing patients’ interactions with coworkers, doctors, relatives and social community making alienation and isolation.
Regular suffering interferes with power to focus, impairs cognition with temper/memory alterations from outcomes of medicines. Entire world Wellness Corporation knowledge received in Main care centres throughout the world display that 22% of all Major treatment clients are afflicted by CP. These are 4 instances a lot more prone to have co-morbid stress and anxiety/melancholy than agony-totally free patients.
LBP results in additional worldwide disability than some other situation. NP and LBP have no affiliated mortality but morbidity level for CP is greater than the final population. YLD and disability modified life decades (DALY) is high. In 2010, DALY for NP rose to 33.six million and 83.0 million for LBP. Systematic evaluations of LBP treatments used in designed international locations and remedies obtainable in creating nations, warmth/ice/ultrasound/traction, are talked over later on.
Backbone XRays and imaging reports for developing existence of intervertebral disc pathology or spinal degenerative illnesses for analysis of NP and LBP aren’t readily available/possible in useful resource poor configurations. Irrespective of significant multilevel spine imaging abnormalities, our client experienced aim improvements in pain and QOL with DTPS indicating that XRays/imaging experiments correlate badly with clinical signs or symptoms.
It is critical to authenticate CRMP, the most common style of CP, like a ubiquitous neuromusculoskeletal disease ensuing from spondylotic radiculopathies induced partial denervation with denervation supersensitivity (DS). General public health priorities necessitate an urgent need for a safe, efficacious, sensible and goal Price-helpful program with potential for avoidance (pre-rehabilitation) with simultaneous genuine-time capacity to clinically diagnose, take care of (rehabilitation) and provide prognosis in of acute and CRMP administration.
MTrPs/Motor Position Identification
MTrPs are pathognomonic of MP, clinically identifiable when force at this point triggers referred discomfort and snapping palpation of your myofascial band provides community twitch response. Meta-Assessment does not recommend Bodily examination for a reputable take a look at for prognosis of MTrPs.
Electrophysiologically, motor level is in which single muscle mass contractions can happen with minimum amount intensity and short length electrical pulses. Anatomically it’s the place wherever motor endplates, namely terminal place of motor nerve fibres are dense. Electrically-evoked one muscle twitch contractions exactly locate MTrPs.
Twitches in Denervation Supersensitivity (DS)
Inside of six-eight times of denervation, DS develops as a consequence of acetylcholine (Ach) receptor improve and reduce in acetylcholinesterase exercise. DS can also come about in extended conduction block.
Twitches physical exercise and extend specific muscles advertising area blood circulation particularly to that muscle. Rat skeletal muscle mass experiments clearly show that twitch contractions from 1Hz stimulation maximize muscle blood stream by 240%.
DEEP TRIGGER Position STIMULATION (DTPS) generally known as ELECTRICAL TWITCH OBTAINING INTRAMUSCULAR STIMULATION
Twitches in DS
Drive, firing sample, relieve/issue of twitch elicitation of deep MTrPs objectively aids clinical differentiation of standard situation from partial denervation of spondylotic radiculopathy. Grade1 twitches outcome from focalized, partial contraction of stimulated muscle mass(s) at MTrP. Much better twitch pressure within the electrode overlying MTrP with DS provides an asymmetrical, bouncy feedback about the bipolar probe with 6 inches (15 cm) separation involving two drinking water-wetted floor electrodes. Grade two twitches In addition present rocking/shaking limb and/or trunk movements from stimulation of MTrPs of deep muscles apposed to bone and joint. Quality 3 twitches create anti-gravity limb movements as a consequence of total muscle(s) contraction. This means proximal stimulus unfold to a lot of and/or bigger nerves from antidromic/ephaptic/immediate stimulation, and/or distal spread of the present entrance because of DS. Grade 4 twitches deliver antigravity limb actions with firing price slower than utilized pulses on account of erratic stimulation of MTrPs with DS from filter effect of restricted and stiff overlying tissues. Power to elicit Grade four twitches is regarded when joint actions abruptly come to be more powerful. On halting DTPS, joint actions continue on autonomously lasting from the several seconds to >ten minutes ahead of fatiguing. Quality 5 twitches make anti-gravity actions with firing level quicker than applied pulse-frequency and rapidly tiredness inside a handful of seconds indicating total, instantaneous depolarization of MTrPs with DS in non-tight muscle mass.
A pre-tiredness phenomenon heralds onset of Grade 5 twitches as multiple twitches/pulse in lieu of ordinary one-twitch/pulse. On continuing stimulation, sudden boost in twitch-charge, rhythm and force happens ahead of erupting into autonomous fatigable twitches. Once the twitch-cascade finishes, DTPS could be re-utilized regularly for 1-5 minutes at this motor close plate zone till all the muscle will become refractory at which era One more client position is useful for stimuli to reach other MTrPs with DS within similar muscle mass.
Pathophysiology of autonomous twitches is comparable to cardiac dysrhythmias.
Deep MTrPs are hard to seek in CRMP as a result of muscle stiffness, tightness, tenderness and weak tolerance to electrical stimulation. In normal muscles, getting MTrPs is fast, nice and pain-free. You can find non-forceful symmetrical opinions on equally electrodes and Grades 3-five twitches never come about.
To facilitate twitching, comfortable muscle mass(s) is positioned at slight extend advantageous for contraction, stimulating together a lot less electrically-resistive intermuscular/intramuscular grooves. If elicited twitches are Grade 1 drive, client re-positioning in supine/prone/side-lying, sitting down, standing, and so forth., and/or clinician repositioning is critical to acquire the right angle to Track down/correctly promote the MTrP with DS. To acquire agony reduction, bare minimum Grade 2 drive is essential. Grade 3-five forces in CRMP will never take place until eventually many Experienced several hours of consecutive solutions. These twitches are elicitable at acute MTrPs with DS within non-tight muscles.
Stimulus parameters utilized for evoking twitches are just like People Utilized in electrodiagnostic medication for peripheral nerve conduction scientific tests. Repetitive stimulation at two-3 Hz tests security of neuromuscular transmission by briefly depleting Ach at diseased or immature endplates leading to fatigue in neuropathic situations. Equally, employing 2-3 Hz, fatigable autonomous twitches elicited with DTPS signify neurogenic involvement with unstable neuromuscular transmission in CRMP.
Muscle trauma, overload, or strain leads to endplate problems, leading to excessive Ach release. This provokes local, partial muscle fibre contraction beneath the endplate and muscle fibre contracture contributes to ischemia and ache. The neuromuscular junction is the internet site most vulnerable to acute ischemia. Dysfunctional conclude plate exhibiting increased ACh release will be the starting point for irregular regional contractions, which may be important for the development of MTrPs.
Spondylotic radiculopathies leads to MP from intramuscular entrapment of nerves and blood vessels. Partial denervation induced shortened/tightened muscle mass fibres produce tension on agony sensitive locations, e.g. annulus fibrosus, bones and joints. Other people have also found MTrPs in radiculopathies. Intervertebral disc degeneration, with nerve root compression/angulation from minimized intervertebral Place, creating neuropathy which leads to distal muscle mass spasm in radicular distribution. Soreness success from shortened/restricted muscle fibres compressing tiny/large blood vessels bringing about ischemia. Bradykinin as well as other neurochemical release sensitizes and/or excites nociceptors.
Systematic Opinions of Solutions for CRMP
Several procedures can be obtained to specifically take care of MTrPs to inactivate, disrupt or suppress MTrP activity. Systematic testimonials have not revealed MTrPs treatment options with Botox, steroids, acupuncture or dry needling for being powerful. In order to make improvements to dry needling ends in CRMP, the corresponding author very first designed Automatic Twitch-Getting Intramuscular Stimulation, which employs mechanical stimulation which has a monopolar needle oscillated 3 occasions in 2 seconds. To aid twitching, she then established/engineered needle DTPS unit that may provide electrical pulses by way of a solitary computerized insertion and retraction of your monopolar needle. These approaches had been discontinued when she applied the Harmless, efficacious, non-traumatic and non-invasive DTPS. Needling techniques lead to ache, bleeding, bruising and tissue trauma and therefore not indicated for repetitive/Recurrent purposes throughout the entire body in CRMP clients necessitating lifetime-long standard therapies.
Systematic Reviews of LBP Treatments
Therapies for Serious LBP not displaying high quality proof for strengthening suffering depth, functional status, world improvement and return to operate involve lumbar supports, traction, superficial heat and chilly, ultrasound, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, small amount laser therapy, muscle mass energy methods, spinal manipulation approaches and chiropractic remedies.
In acute and Serious LBP, therapeutic massage enhances ache and function only short-time period. Immediate manual/mechanical stimulation mobilizes superficial muscles but deep therapeutic massage can make soreness being an adverse function. DTPS precisely focalizes stimulation to MTrPs with DS and it has minimum inclination to cause write-up-treatment method discomfort which can be resolved with extended/much more therapy sessions.
In neuropathic problems, in hypertensive sufferers, along with the elderly with substantial tightness and stiffness, it is necessary that DTPS be applied essentially suffering-free making use of only stimulation parameters the individual can tolerate and settling for Grade1-two twitches. The probe has to be lifted from the pores and skin every two-four twitches so that the stimulus around the non-twitching/very poor twitching muscle mass would not bear repetitive sub-threshold stimulation bringing about spasm and discomfort during and after remedy. Patients may tolerate pain throughout cure pondering erroneously that enduring potent stimulation will acquire larger sized twitches. Contrarily, pain-induced involuntary tightening of muscles in the course of DTPS will inhibit deep penetration of electricity in to the tissues triggering pain in the course of and just after therapy. The clinician ought to enjoy clients’ facial expressions and pay attention for sighs/moans or goal physical distress signs linked to enhanced sympathetic tone including pilomotor, vasomotor and sudomotor reflexes and lower stimulation strength accordingly.
Hypertension and pulse charge reduction happen to be famous after discomfort relieving therapeutic massage attributable to elevated parasympathetic tone and sympathetic tone inhibition. Normal training in older Energetic men and women lowers each SBP and PP when compared to sedentary counterparts. In the same way regular DTPS sessions are valuable aerobic routines that decrease hypertension and pulse proportional to twitch drive.
There may be inadequate evidence to aid usage of epidural injection to facet joints and nerve blocks in LBP. US Meals and Drug Administration reports paraplegia, quadriplegia, spinal wire infarction, and stroke from system-linked troubles like intrathecal injection, epidural hematoma, direct spinal cord damage, and embolic infarction soon after inadvertent intra-arterial injection.
Systematic reviews on remedies will not display crystal clear evidence that anti-depressants, are more effective than placebo in Persistent LBP. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) are successful for short-phrase symptomatic aid in people with acute and Continual LBP with no sciatica. Muscle relaxants are helpful in administration of non-specific LBP, but adverse outcomes involve careful use. Opioids when compared with NSAIDs or antidepressants did not clearly show distinctions with regards to soreness and function. There won’t be any placebo-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) supporting efficiency and protection of lengthy-term opioid therapy for treatment of Serious LBP.
Gabapentin at doses of 1200 mg or more is helpful for a few people with some distressing neuropathic suffering situations. Gabapentin (1200 mg) use on this individual one hour before DTPS reduced agony which facilitated twitch elicitation.
Conflicting evidence exists on small-expression impact of radiofrequency lesioning in Continual LBP and incapacity of zygapophyseal origin. Intradiscal radiofrequency thermocoagulation will not be productive for Long-term discogenic LBP.
Proof for minimally invasive discectomy (MID) Even though associated with shorter clinic keep has become located inferior when it comes to aid of leg soreness, LBP and re-hospitalization and our client matches this profile. More research is required to define proper indications for MID as alternate to standard open discectomy.
Systematic overview of RCTs on stretching indicates that just before, just after, or ahead of-just after workout stretching, does not develop clinically important reductions in delayed-onset muscle soreness in balanced Grown ups. Persistent MP people who did stretching for 3 months didn’t demonstrate usefulness in improving upon muscle mass extensibility, While stretching enhanced tolerance to extend-connected distress. When rigid hamstrings are subjected to eccentric work out, power reduction, suffering, muscle tenderness, and increased creatine kinase activity happens. This is certainly consistent with the sarcomere pressure concept of muscle injury exhibiting experimental evidence of Affiliation amongst flexibility and inclination to muscle damage.
Mechanical stretch forces shipped through the surface area arise to lots of muscles concurrently and are not successful in stretching shortened muscle mass fibres at deep MrTPs. The solution to generate stretching continuously more effective lies in finding new methods which includes DTPS. Productive summation of twitch-induced extend forces centered to MTrPs are best with repetitive 1-3 Hz stimulation.
Not typically acknowledged is thixotropy of muscle that’s a ubiquitous and functionally vital phenomenon as it success from tendency of actin and myosin filaments to stick alongside one another when inactive for a time frame. Passive Homes of thixotropy is often minimized with prior actions as apparent with preventive heat-up functions of athletes just before intense sporting activities. Conquering thixotropy may be the basis by which DTPS will be able to clinically improve functionality in muscle tightness with out discomfort, fibromyalgia, stroke or Parkinsonism. Minimized muscle thixotropy/stiffness persists given that motion persisted but will return to its former point out. Stiffness reduction afforded by twitch exercise lets a lot more mobility plus the greater mobility and elevated blood stream perpetuates to further improve muscle function and QOL.
Enhancing Denervation Supersensitivity Associated CRMP
Partial denervation and/or conduction block during the existence of DS contributes to ongoing MTrPs formation in several myotomes at different instances day-to-day with ADL. Morphologic and electromyographic scientific tests have shown atrophy and delayed activation of deep muscles with the spine in sufferers with Persistent NP and Long-term LBP. Reduce in highest pressure of deep back again muscles improve resultant joint moments and lessen the stabilization functionality furnished by these muscles into the lumbar backbone. Training therapy seems to become slightly powerful at reducing discomfort and enhancing perform in Older people with Long-term LBP. There is conflicting evidence for usefulness of training in reducing the amount of recurrences or maybe the recurrence level.
DTPS is aerobic work out therapy to personal muscles. If there isn’t a ache relief with the initial DTPS session, the key prognosis of CP will not be CRMP and various results in require consideration, e.g. neuropathic, inflammatory, psychiatric or nociceptive. More DTPS sessions are recommended even in this kind of sufferers to take care of co-morbid CRMP and/or muscle mass tightness to aid management of the principal suffering.
For ideal useful benefits optimum treatment in CRMP involves these 5 muscle mass parts: trapezius, latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, and paraspinal muscles from neck to sacral parts. This is needed regardless of whether client offers only with NP/higher limb suffering or LBP/decreased limb suffering as With this client. Furthermore, other muscles connected to the thoracolumbar fascia and alongside the kinetic chain need to be addressed proximo-distally commencing with the largest muscles that cross numerous joints to smaller muscles of fingers and feet as required. Therapies start with weakened muscles subjected to injurious eccentric contractions ahead of directing treatments to strong muscles made use of generally for concentric contractions. Within the existence of weak symptomatic-side muscles, asymptomatic-side muscles are more robust by default and from overuse acquiring MTrPs that have to have treatment method. This balances Long-term powerful pull of muscles toward asymptomatic side that far more weakens symptomatic side. Solutions commence around the symptomatic-facet commencing with higher trapezius MTrPs with DS which can be easily Positioned. By its myofascial connections, other muscles over the symptomatic aspect turn out to be simpler to deal with. Offered MTrPs with DS are stimulated, Grades 3-five twitch elicitation is facilitated by aged neuromuscular junctions exhibiting enhanced pre-synaptic nerve terminal branching, article-synaptic distribution of neurotransmitter receptor internet sites, greater Ach quantal material plus more immediate decline of endplate prospective power during continuous pre-synaptic neuron stimulation.
Also, central sensitization amplifies DS. Noxious stimuli and/or misinterpretation of non-noxious stimuli (secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia) can induce chronic agony. Damage induced functional and adaptive alterations consist of ineffective synapses unmasking, receptive subject shifts and reorganization or altered performance of surviving neural networks for the brain cortex degree too at peripheral nerves and receptors.
DTPS Job in CRMP
With DTPS We now have originated an algorithm with reliable soreness/discomfort relief and reproducible results with no concurrent usage of a number of remedies or other therapies. Presence of DS in CRMP needs that remedies be Risk-free and efficient for regular existence-prolonged use on all the human body. We studied our scenario with statistical method Manage (SPC). Studying 1 scenario intimately sequentially with time can develop statistical effects excellent to that of a RCT. In these circumstances SPC has larger statistical energy to exclude chance as an explanation.
DTPS is well suited for use in developing nations since it is inexpensive.
Studying POINTS/TAKE Residence MESSAGES
1. CRMP is a neuromusculoskeletal sickness caused by spondylotic radiculopathies next acute or Continual cumulative trauma with DS induced peripheral and central, mechanical and electrical hyper-excitability.
two. The mediate explanation for CRMP is neuromuscular ischemia at deep MTrPs in tightened/shortened/stiffened muscles from spondylotic radiculopathy similar partial denervation that maintains/aggravates CRMP.
3. Systematic reviews exhibit insufficient effective therapies for CRMP. As CRMP is a world community health and fitness dilemma with massive economic toll on Modern society, governments of developed and acquiring nations really should invest in Protected, efficacious, cost efficient novel techniques for example DTPS for its prevention and management.
4. DTPS is a safe and efficacious innovation for repetitive, existence-extended whole body remedies for CRMP management as an actual-time preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic armamentarium. It empowers sufferers in their own individual overall health-treatment because it may also be self-carried out.
five. Commonly obtainable sphygmomanometer is useful as a reasonable, realistic, aim, authentic-time discomfort keep track of for clinical adhere to-up of DTPS treatments.
Affected person’S Point of view
I, Crawford Hill, had a spinal surgical procedures two years back in July 2013. The speculation was that my lack of ability to walk uphill efficiently was severely compromised by a herniated disc at L4-L5. I had had various accidents and trauma which possibly contributed to the condition, regardless of whether it absolutely was a herniated disc or some other explanation for compromising functionality- Primarily going for walks uphill. One of these was an expedition trip to Ecuador for the duration of which I was on a ship which slammed up and down for four hrs. I had to tighten my buttock intensely and keep on for the whole boat-ride. The next day I had been with a horse which trotted causing me a lot more bouncing consequences on my spine for 4 hrs. This was an Severe challenge as I had to tighten my buttock again to endure the bouncing up-and down. Both of these back to back again incidents adopted about five months soon after I fell from a rock climb gym wall. Following that drop, I laid within the padded mat for numerous minutes wondering I’d seriously hurt myself. Nonetheless I used to be in a position to stand up And that i appeared to be ok. I thought that these injuries did not seemingly compromise my purpose. Having said that on hindsight it most likely did – especially together with the traumatic incidents in Ecuador which I discussed. Heading additional back again in time about a decade in the past I attempted to h2o ski and wound up in a very compromised posture and felt some huge pressure on my hamstrings. I Allow go in the rope and thought that I experienced destroyed my hamstrings seriously. On the other hand once again I had been ready to function and forgot with regard to the injury.
Heading even further again in time I did “pull my groin” as they are saying, in high school football. There was no great treatment out there. Lots of heat and inappropriate workout most likely contributed for the personal injury. Nonetheless Yet again I moved on since I used to be commonly very in good shape and probably Possess a significant tolerance for agony and compromised functionality. I have tried out nearly every single procedure achievable like quite a few versions of Actual physical therapy, gravity-assisted traction, yoga, Feldenkrais exercise routines, spinal manipulations, acupuncture with 4 distinct practitioners, chiropractic release, medicines, epidural injections, a lot of anti-inflammatory prescription drugs such as opioids and perhaps spinal operation. Furthermore I’ve a stretching and myofascial launch software which does give me relief. Ache is on my thoughts 23 hrs/day and I sought relief with eToims. Right after treatment with DTPS in just 6 months, I’m able to sense my influenced musculature namely the gluteal and hamstrings muscles returning to function. The deep twitching has produced most of the spasms along with the muscles sense more practical and i am willing to start gentle physical exercise. In June of 2015, I went on my initially expedition considering that 2011. I went to Crete and I had been capable of stroll on stage and inclines for 3-6 miles daily for two weeks. This has been a remarkable improvement immediately after several years of aggravation with all another modalities I attempted.
Jennifer Chu, M.D. Emeritus Associate Professor of Actual physical Drugs and Rehabilitation, College of Drugs, University of Pennsylvania, pioneered DTPS Twitch Aid Method that utilizes floor electrical stimulation to Find motor factors (set off points). The motor details are then stimulated to induce robust neighborhood muscle contractions, termed twitches. This results in reduced muscle discomfort and irritation within the locations that were stimulated on account of improved blood flow. The associated pain/irritation-relieving system is thought to incorporate community muscle exercise and extend outcomes on getting rid of muscle spasms/shortening. Cellphone:1215-387-0550 ext one hundred. email: [email protected] Comply with on Twitter @stopmusclepain Look for video clips on YouTube. Twitches of Selection Fast Tiredness https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YAhYgaq9Ae0